CLS II: Basic Grammar and Pronouns

Now for the second post of my languageness. In the last post I went over the sounds making up CLS. I shall now go over the basic grammar and introduce the pronouns.

The basic sentence structure in CLS is SOV. Thus: Drak thal there – “I hate you”, where drak is “I” thal is “you” and there is “hate”.

(note on pronunciation: english speakers will be tempted to pronounce “there” as the english “there”. There are, however, no silent e’s in CLS, so “there” is pronounced with two syllables. Also, remember that “th” is unvoiced, as in the english “thin”)

CLS has seven noun cases, which will be gone over more deeply in future posts. These cases are Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive, Locative, Vocative, and Instrumental. Nominative is the subject of a sentance – in the sentence “God is dead”. Accusative is the object of a sentence – in “God is a chameleon“, a chameleon is in the accusative case. Dative indicates an indirect object – “God sent an angel to slay me“. You can tell what part of a sentence the Dative is by removing it and seeing if the sentence still makes sense. “God sent an angel” makes sense, while “God sent to slay me” only kind of does. Anything in the dative case is not strictly necessary to the meaning of the sentence.

Genitive indicates possession. Thus, “My God is dead.” Locative indicates that something is a location – “God went to Puerto Rico“. Vocative indicates that you are addressing the person/thing in question – “Hey, God!” Instrumental indicates that something is being used for something – “God smote me with a thunderbolt.” Instrumental, similar to dative, can also usually be removed without significantly altering the meaning of the sentence.

Pronouns are a very important part of a language. It’s hard to tell someone they’re a dumbass without using the word “you”, and it’s equally challenging to tell them you think they suck without using “I”. Below is a table of basic pronouns. There’s an assload of them. They are presented in all the cases, though both locative and instrumental are highly situational (I went to him, I hit the wall with him)

Click here.

Yeah, yeah, it’s not very pretty. But when it gets down to it, neither is your mother. Anyway, a bit to explain. There are more pronouns, by far, then there are in English. This is because of several things. One, I have seven cases, and there’s no doubles, as in the English “you” (used for both accusative and nominative). Two, CLS distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive we (whether or not the ‘we’ includes the addressee or not – the difference between “we should go to japan” and “we will kill you”).

Third, my third-person pronouns distinguish on six levels, as opposed to English, which distinguishes on three (male, female, and other). CLS has the male, female, nongender, object, animal, and abstract pronouns. Most of those explain themselves (abstract is used for things that cannot be nailed down – an answer, for example. “I know it!” – “Drak ëtet kharte!”) Nongender is used for when you aren’t sure of a person’s gender – “Dude, we have Professor Gold, awesome!” “Why, is he/she cool?” Yeah, you can do that without a slash in CLS.

Next post you get verb tense. Which is gonna be crazy, ’cause verb tense distinguishes based on both evidentiality and time. So there’s one cubic assload of verb tenses. Look forward to a shitload of tables, y’all.

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11 Comments

  1. pieboy said,

    December 24, 2007 at 9:00 pm

    Good thing there’s only one declension. This is already absurdly complex.

    I also see you’ve got noun cases that differ in things other than postpositions and vowels. Fuck.

  2. pieboy said,

    December 24, 2007 at 10:20 pm

    also i made two new posts

  3. Esty said,

    December 24, 2007 at 10:22 pm

    eeee……. there are so many things that are so much different from how I was taught case grammar in latin I want to point them all out but… *hits head against wall*

    um. I can’t get past the cases thing but apart from that, shiny. I guess.

  4. tuskedchimp said,

    December 24, 2007 at 11:35 pm

    Yeah, the case system is rather different in various languages. In latin I expect it’s all drugged up, ’cause… latin.

  5. pieboy said,

    December 25, 2007 at 12:09 am

    Nominative
    Accusative
    Ablative (object of certain prepositions, positions in time, other)
    Dative
    Genitive
    Vocative
    Locative

    Only one real difference.

  6. tuskedchimp said,

    December 25, 2007 at 12:54 am

    Yeah, I was gonna include ablative, but I forgot it when I wrote down all the noun declensions, and I was all like “f’ that”.

  7. Esty said,

    December 25, 2007 at 7:35 pm

    not which cases are there but your examples are what make me twitch

  8. pieboy said,

    December 26, 2007 at 1:12 am

    Yeah, “God is a chameleon” is still nominative – “chameleon” is the object of a linking verb, and therefore not a direct object but a subject complement, functioning as an adjectival modifier.

  9. tuskedchimp said,

    December 26, 2007 at 2:18 am

    That’s not how it works in german. Which is better. Pfft.

  10. pieboy said,

    January 1, 2008 at 1:29 am

    SAID YOU’D HAVE A NEW POST BY 2008 AND YOU DON’T

    RAAAAPE

  11. tuskedchimp said,

    January 1, 2008 at 4:24 am

    WHY DID YOU REMEMBER THAT

    ANYWAY, I’M JUST GONNA BE GOING ON PLUTO TIME FOR THIS ONE. WHICH MEANS I HAVE UNTIL THE SECOND. (YES I PULLED THAT OUT OF MY ASS, FUCK YOU)


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